E-mail address: tomkins optushome. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Hair whorl characteristics were assessed in the domestic dog Canis familiaris in the regions of cephalic, cervical dorsal, ventral, and lateral , thoracic and brachial axillary regions, the chest, shoulders, elbows, ventral abdominal region, and on the caudal thighs ischiatic. They were classified as simple or tufted, and their position was recorded as the distance between their centers and bony landmarks within each region.
As part of Dr. Beach's long-term study of the behavioral endocrinology of sexually differentiated behaviors in dogs conducted at the University of California, Berkeley , we investigated sex differences in social rank and aggressiveness. The findings proved to be so rewarding, that observational experiments on the development of social hierarchies became the focus of the research program for nearly a decade. Social rank was assigned primarily from results of dyadic bone tests — observations of two dogs with one bone, and from general observations of the pack at large, e. Standard dyadic bone tests comprised two parts: firstly, the Equal Opportunity test, in which the bone a large meaty ox tail was thrown to land equidistant between the two dogs and then, the ensuing interactions were observed for 90 seconds e. Male-Male Dyads An examination of inter-male relationships demonstrated an absolutely linear hierarchy, with extremely infrequent variation during the nearly ten years of testing.
Developed in England some years ago to hunt foxes, the Jack Russell Terrier, also known as the Parson Russell Terrier, is a lively, independent, and clever little dog. For experienced dog owners only! Contrary to popular belief, small size doesn't necessarily an apartment dog make — plenty of small dogs are too high-energy and yappy for life in a high-rise. Being quiet, low energy, fairly calm indoors, and polite with the other residents, are all good qualities in an apartment dog.
You might be curious why they sleep so much, and are they really dreaming when you see their paws twitch in their sleep? Dogs seem to sleep on just about any surface, but are there dog beds that are better than others? On average, dogs spend 12 to 14 hours per day sleeping. Wild dogs and wolves may sleep even more than domesticated dogs.